ANTIBIOTICS AND IT’S EFFECTS ON THE BODY SYSTEM


                     Antibiotics  are a group of medicines that are used to treat  infections caused by bacteria and certain parasites.They are normally prescibed for more serious bacteria infections.

                  

                    When prescibed,it is important  to take the entire course of antibiotics which helps to prevent resistance developing to that antibiotic.Antibiotic can be taken by mouth as liquids,tablets,or capsules,or they can be given by injection.It is also available as creams,ointments or lotions to apply to the skin to treat certain infections.

                     There are various  antibiotics available and they come in various different brand names.Antibiotics are usually grouped together based on how they work.Each type of antibiotic only works  against certain types of  of bacteria or parasites.This is why different antibiotics are used to treat different types of infection.

                          

The main types of antibiotics include:

                            Penicillins-For example penicillin V,flucloxacillin and amoxicillin.
                           Cephalosporins-For example  cefaclor,cefadroxil,cefalexin
                           Tetracyclines-For example tetracycline,doxycyline and minocycline
                           Aminoglycosides-For  gentamicin,amikacin and tobramycin
                           Macrolides-For example erythromycin,azithromycin and clarithromycin
                           Clindamycin,Sulfonamides and trimethoprim-For example,co-trimoxazole
                      Metronidazole and tinidazole-For example ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin and norfloxacin
                            

                                    How does Antibiotics work:- Antibiotics work by killing bacteria or the parasite.This is often done by interfering with the structure  of the cell wall of the bactreium  or parasite.Some work by stopping bacteria or parasite from multiplying.
                          How antibiotic is prescibed:-The choice of antibiotic mainly depends on which infection you have and the bacterium or parasite  your doctor thinks is causing your infection.This is because each antibiotic is effective only against certain bacteria or parasite.Other factors for choice of antibiotic include how severe the infection is ,how well your kidneys and liver is working,dosing schedule,othe r medications  you may be taking,common side –effects,a history  of having an allergy to a certain type of antibiotics or if you are breast feeding or pregnant.
                            When taking antibiotics:-It is important  to take antibiotics in the correct way.If you do not  take it in the right way it may reduce how well they work and affect their absorption and therefore may not work as well.When  the entire course prescibed by the doctor is not taken and stopped mid-course,the bacteria may  be partially treated and not completely killed,bacteria may then become resistant to that antibiotic.Overuse of antibiotics has led to some bacteria mutating and become resistant to some antibiotics,which may then not work when really needed,for e.gMRSA which has become resistant to may different  antibiotics and  difficult to treat with orthodox antibiotics!
          PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATION OF HOW BACTRIA RESIST ANTIBIOTICS:

                     

    

    What are the side-effects of taking orthodox antibiotics?:- 
    There are various  side effects in taking antibiotics depending on the type.Below are lists  
     common side effects of antibiotics:
1.       Soft Tools
2.       Diarrhoea
3.       Mild stomach upset
4.       Nausea
5.       Allergic Reaction(Some have died from a severe allergic reaction-although this is rare)
6.  It kills off normal defence and good bacteria in the body thereby leading to growth of thrush,bad bacteria and yeast
7.       Abdominal cramps
8.       Shortness of breath
9.       Hives
10.   Rash Sewlling  of lips,face,tongue,fainting
11.   Vaginal itching e.t.c

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